In Part 1 of this discussion I reviewed the environmental aspect of electric, hydrogen, and hybrid powered cars; in this document I will outline some of the deficiencies in the use of ETHANOL as a proposed "alternative" carbon-free, low-gas emission fuel.
Let's start by taking a look at where ethanol comes from, how it is produced, and why it is being touted as an energy efficient environmentally friendly biofuel.
Ethanol can be produced as a petrochemical via the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast. In this paper we will leave aside the ethanol produced petrochemically and take on board some facts relating to the field crops required to produce ethanol.
In the U.S.A ethanol as a fuel is derived mainly from maize (corn).
According to the "Renewable Fuel Association, in October '07, there were 131 grain ethanol bio-refineries in the U.S.A. with a further 72 refineries under construction.
Question: how much maize will these refineries consume just to
produce a biofuel?. Answer: America alone produces 270 million metric tons annually which is almost half the worlds harvest. It has been calculated that 500lbs of maize is required to fill one tank of the average american car; simple arithmetic will show that equates to approximately 12 tons of maize for 1 car for 1year. If America is producing 270 million tons p.a., which is the approximate amount required to keep 20 million cars on the U.S roads for one year then ALL of America's maize production is used on the production of fuel and none is left to use as FOOD.
Brazil now has a policy of supporting ethanol as a car fuel which is provided from domestically grown sugar cane, which not only has a greater concentration of sucrose than corn (approx. 30% better) but
is also much easier to extract.
The policies of both the Brazilian and the U.S.A. governments - the worlds suppliers of 69% of ethanol- regarding producing ethanol biofuels is directly at the expense of the food supply chain. Both sugar products and corn have soared up in price as a direct result
of these policies and the huge subsidies paid to farmers and industrial conglomerates. In fact the Asian Developement
Bank stated on Monday the 21st April this year "that developed nations should stop paying agricultural subsidies to encourage
biofuel production because those payments are making staple
foods more expensive."
Sweden does not help this situation either as its said that 13% of
new cars sold there now run on biofuel and practically every other
car maker in the world is trying to make their own version of a
In following their policy to produce ethanol biofuel systems they have turned their backs to the fact that this policy has a negative effect on the environment by removing crops (food) from the food chain and where it is the case (Brazil, S.America) where tropical forests are being demolished to plant biofuel producing crops, they are removing those vital trees from from the land which themselves can literally absorb a ton of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in their lifetime.
Finally, a recent article in Science magazine states: "the use of US croplands for biofuels causes increased greenhouse gas emissions through emissions from land use change".
Having read the above it is incredible how anyone could perceive ethanol to be an ethical alternative fuel.
There is an ethical, environmentally friendly system available NOW,
but nobody in government nor anyone in the oil industry supports it.
WHY, - simply because they have a vested interest in the status quo.
The big conglomerates with government officials aiding them have invested BILLIONS in the aforementioned so called alternative fuels
and they have made huge mistakes but they wish to protect their bad investments at all costs, even at a cost to the world’s environment.
As mentioned we do have an alternative system that is eco-friendly and it is available NOW; it is the Water4Gas fuel conversion system
which for a very small fee is yours to benefit from immediately.
What are the immediate benefits of installing a Water4Gas fuel conversion system?
a)..Your vehicle will dramatically produce significantly cleaner gas emissions thus reducing the amount of carbon dioxide discharged
into the air.
b)..You will reduce the amount of land required for crops to convert
to biofuel which can then be utilized for growing food crops.
c)..Reduced petrol/diesel consumption via improved m.p.g.
d)..Both a & b help to provide a better, healthier environment, (and
incidentally you’ll find you have more cash left in your pocket.)
For full details of the Water4Gas fuel conversion system please visit:-