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El blog de Maria

Your daily Spanish Law reporter. Have it with a cafe con leche.
www.costaluzlawyers.es

Legal tip 120. Telephone Police reports in English! Hope you do not have to dial it!
28 July 2009

Telephone Police Reports
Please dial: 902 102 112
 
 
This service operates in different languages:

  Spanish 24 hours round the clock service.
  English 24 hours round the clock service.
  French From 8 A.M until 12 P.M., all weekdays.
  German From 8 A.M until 12 P.M., all weekdays.
  Italian From 8 A.M until 12 P.M., all weekdays.
  Arab From 8 A.M until 12 P.M., all weekdays.
  Japanese From 8 A.M until 12 P.M., all weekdays.
 
Crimes and circumstances that can be reported to the Police over the phone:
  • Theft with violence and larceny
    • Breaking into cars / stores / houses.
    • Documents and/or belongings
    • Robberies (bag snatching)o Petty larceny (pick-pocketing)
    • Swindles/ fraudso Damage to property (house, car...)
  • Loss of documents/ effects.
  • Objects recoveries.
    • Cars
    • Documents and or belongings


IMPORTANT REMARKS:
Formal reports to the Police regarding aggravated assault or with dangerous weapons, or formal reports against a perpetrator whose personal information is known, won’t be received by phone. Those reports to the Police will always have to be made in person at the closest Police Station.
Crimes requiring immediate Police action: those related to offences against a person’s well-being, and those especially complex, will be reported in person at the Police Station.
Once the report has been lodged by a telephone call, and if the complainant agrees with its content, it must be signed at the closest National Police Station within the following 48 hours. Telephone Reports take precedence over those made at the Police Station, except in justified causes
CALL PRICE:
Prices for calls to the number 902 102 112 from the following operators are for guidance only:
MOBILE PHONE SERVICES
MOVISTAR
COST
TIME PERIOD
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
0.15
.
ADDITIONAL SECOND
0.00431
The whole time zone
ADDITIONAL MINUTE 0.26 The whole time zone

 
COST
TIME PERIOD
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
0.15
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€ 0.37
On Monday to Sunday of 8ours to 20ours
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€ 0.23
On Monday to Sunday of 8ours to 20ours

 
VODAFONE
COST
TIME PERIOD
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
€ 0.15
.
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€ 0.42
The whole time zone
Invoice per seconds from the first second
These prices do not include VAT and are valid from March 4, 2009
LAND PHONE SERVICE
TELEFONICA
COST
TIME PERIOD
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
€0.092795
 
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€0.071952
M to F from 8:00 to 20:00 h.
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€0.042109
M to F from 20:00 to 08:00 h. and Sat., Sun. and national holidays
 
 
ONO
COST
TIME PERIOD
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
€0.083300
 
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€0.067300
M to F from 8:00 to 20:00 h.
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€0.040300
M to F from 20:00 to 08:00 h. and Sat.., Sun. and national festivals
 
VODAFONE
COST
TIME PERIOD
CALL ESTABLISHMENT
€ 0.15
.
ADDITIONAL MINUTE
€ 0.42
The whole time zone
Invoice per seconds from the first second



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Saving banks´property offers: 25% less
27 July 2009

"A cada cerdo le llega su San Martín". ( I am going to ask Luis to explain this spanish saying for you today as it seems to me it perfectly fits with the information below:

ACSI ( a holding company for the management of real estate assets owned by saving banks in Spain) is launching its activity this week. They will be offering properties at much discounted prices ( -25%).

 25% less: maybe the real price they should have been sold in the market 4 or 5 years ago.

I guess that saving banks will end up selling  the number of properties that would have been sold (non-inflated) in a sane market some years ago too.  No speculators will come to the festival this year.

Reality always makes its correction. That is maybe the best lesson we need to learn out of this. " A cada cerdo le llega su San Martín".

Now it is time for consumers rights. Making virtue out of necessity again.

Pork´s slaughter in Spain.

 



Like 0        Posted at 10:29   Comments (2)


Legal tip 119. Martinsa-Fadesa will give money back to buyers with no house and no Bank Guarantee:good but short.
23 July 2009

Out of an agreement performed by now by the 54,7% of creditors, Martinsa Fadesa will give money back to those owners who were not given a Bank Guarantee for the return of money paid according to Law 57/68  and houses are not going to be built.

The refund limit is 400.000 € , just one refund is possible per person and it is obligatory that the house was being bought by an individual ( not a company).

The clause of the creditor´s agreement has already been accpeted by these banks: Caja Madrid, Banco Popular, La Caixa, Caixa Galicia, Bancaja y Caixa Catalunya.

The real good new is that both the company and the creditor´s meeting administrators  can assess now that  the company will go forward and even restarting activity in very near future times: beginning of 2010.

I cannot agree with the limits ( 400.000€, one refund per person, no companies) as it does not even respect the terms of Law 57/68 which grant these rights to any off plan purchaser whose house was not completed on time: with no amount/units limits and without restriction to companies, if that was the legal form used by the buyer,  but... well, it is not a bad agreement to start with ( as an initial/minimum show of respect towards consumers) and of course, there is always the possibility of going against the agreement ( using Law and case Law) and ask for more before the Judge.

Again, in my opinion just a start-with, not bad though given the past situation. 

The battle is not over.

Best summer wishes,

Maria

Atlanterra ( Tarifa) de Scooterjec at Flickr.com

 

 



Like 0        Posted at 10:13   Comments (11)


Legal tip 118. My child has an otitis: what are my rights in Spain?
22 July 2009

As a minor age foreigner, your kid has same rights as any spanish national for the treatment of that otitis. So you basically need to go to the next " Centro de salud" ( the old called " ambulatorios") and ask for a medical urgent visit. Just bring yours and your kid´s identification card.
 
You have got rights for the medical visit and for the prescription of medicines ( also supported by the Government), so..... those anthibiotics will cost you much less than going through the private medical system.
 
Below is the article ( number 12) of the Foreigners Act that provides such wonderful rights: Spain is different, yes.... Spain is very nice in terms of health assistance too.
 
A doctor friend of us has always said that Spain has the best Public Health system in the world.... yes, please, please allow to me this little bit of self-proud.
 
Best summer wishes,
 
Maria
 
 
Provision 12. Right to health care of foreigners in Spain
 
  1. Foreigners registered in the local census of the town they usually reside , have right to health care under same conditions than Spanish nationals.
  2. Foreigners being in Spain for a stay have right to public urgent health care if they contracted any serious illness or suffered an accident, whatever the cause might be. They will have right to the continuity of that health care till they are discharged.
  3. Minor age foreigners  being in Spain for a stay  have right to health care under same conditions than Spanish nationals.
  4. Foreigner pregnant women being in Spain for a stay have right to health care during the pregnancy, delivery and post partum.

Painted by " Fresco Technique" Balcony, Barcelona ( Spain) by ** Mary** at Flickr.com

 

 



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Legal tip 117. Fines for speeding in Spain
20 July 2009

SPEED LIMIT
 
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
FINE
To
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
121
132
No fine

From/to

41
50

51
70

61
80

71
90

81
100

91
110
101
120
111
130
122
141
133
152
100 euros
From/to
61
70
71
80
81
90
91
100
101
110
111
120
121
130
131
140
142
151
153
162
140 euros and
-2 points
From/to
- - -
101
105
111
120
121
130
131
140
141
150
152
161
163
172
200 euros and
-3 points
From/to
- - - - -
131
135
141
150
151
165
162
181
173
198
300 euros and
-4 points
From/to
71
77
81
87
91
97
106
112
121
128
136
143
151
158
166
174
182
190
199
208
380 euros and
-6 points
From/to
78
84
88
94
98
104
113
119
129
136
144
151
159
166
175
183
191
199
209
218
450 euros and
-6 points
From
85
95
105
120
137
152
167
184
200
219
520 euros and
-6 points

Figures are km/hour

Cataluña and Pais Vasco have different scales.

Fine can be reduced ( up to 30%) if you pay inmediately after being fined.

Horse cart by Robby 25 at Flickr.com



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Maria´s pink request for your topics
15 July 2009

What... do you want me to write about during this hot days?

What are the topics that you have been looking information about with no findings, those that are most of your interest...?

Let me say to you what interest me the best so you can have some sympathy with me:

-Consumers rights before banks/ developers and estate agents... too obvious ...hum?

- Elderly people rights.

- Women´s rights.

- Children´s rights.

- Inmigration rights.

- Residential tourism in Spain: itspossibilities, its reality: ... .the simple tourism... the achievable.... not too luxury involved: real Spain.

Yes, those topics pays my bills... they do and are actually, let me tell you... the topics of these wonderful, challenging current  times.

Please, yes of course,  you let me know your preferences... I need them... I am interested about them.

Have a great summer you all!

Maria

Orange door, pink house in Barcelona by Chriscom at Flickr.com

 



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Legal tip 116. Spain Consumers Act. Part 6
14 July 2009

Your rights for fair promotions, devolutions, and a good level of customers services.

PROTECTION of legitimate economic interests of consumers and users.

Article 19. General principle.

The legitimate economic and social interests of consumers and users must be respected under the terms established in this rule, being also applicable all contained in civil and commercial Law and any other applicable EU, national or regional legislation.

Article 20. Promotions.

The use of contests, sweepstakes, giveaways, coupons, prize or similar methods related to the offer, promotion or sale of certain goods or services shall be subject to specific regulation, establishing the conditions of transparency and ensuring that should occur in their case the protection of the legitimate economic interests of consumers and users.

Article 21. System of checks and customer service.

1. The system of verification, claim, security and opportunity to surrender or return established in contracts, should allow the consumer or user to ensure the nature, characteristics, conditions and use or purpose of the good or service; to effectively claim in case of error, defect or deterioration;  to enforce the guarantees of quality or level of  services provided, and to obtain a refund equal to the market price of the good or service, in whole or in part, upon default or defective performance.

The refund of the  product price will be in full in case of lack of conformity of product with the contract, as provided in Title V of Book II ( of this same Act)

2. Office and information services and customer services that companies make available to the consumer must ensure that this have proof of his grievances and complaints. If such services use telephone or electronic means to perform their duties, they will have to ensure a direct and personal attention, beyond the possibility of using other complementary means.
 
 
Fishing by Atarraya . By Andrés Breijo at Flickr.com
 
 


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Legal tip 115. Spain Consumers Act . Part 5.
10 July 2009

 

CONSUMERS RIGHTS TO INFORMATION, TRAINING AND EDUCATION.
Article 17. Information, training and education of consumers and users.

1. The public authorities, within their respective competences, shall promote the training and education of consumers and users, shall ensure that they have the information necessary for the effective exercise of their rights and shall ensure that they are given understandable information about proper use and consumption of goods and services available on the market.

2. The state-owned mass media will devote spaces and programs, without advertising character, to the information and education of consumers and users. In such spaces and programs, in accordance with its content and purpose, the media shall allow access and participation of consumers´ and users´ associations and other representative groups and stakeholders, in a mutually agreed upon manner. 

Article 18. Labeling and advertising of goods and services.

1. The labeling and presentation of goods and services and the manner of presentation for such goods and services must not mislead the consumer and user, specifically regarding:
 
Characteristics of the good or service, especially about the good or service´s nature, identity, composition, quantity, origin or method of manufacture or production.

Attributing to the good or service certain effects or characteristics that they do not have.

Suggesting that the product or service has special features when all similar goods or services possess such characteristics.
 
2. Without prejudice to the specific requirements that are established by special regulations, all goods and services available to consumers and users should incorporate, support or ultimately allow in a clear and understandable way, truthful, effective and sufficient information on its essential characteristics and, particularly on the following:

           Complete name and address of the producer.

           Nature, composition and purpose of the good or service.

           Quality, quantity, grade and usual name or mark, if any. 

           Production date and lot, where it is required by regulation, the time limit recommended for use or consumption or expiration date.

            Instructions or directions for proper use or consumption, warnings, and foreseeable risks.

3. Without prejudice of what is expressly provided by law or regulation, the compulsory labeling and presentation of goods or services sold in Spain must be written in at least Castilian, the official state language of Spain.

4. The offer, promotion, and use of false or misleading advertising for goods and services will be prosecuted and punished as fraud. Consumer associations are entitled to initiate and intervene in the legal procedures available to stop such frauds.

Casa del Califa in Vejer de la  Frontera ( Cádiz) by Sarah and Iain at Flickr.com



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Banks for a win-win scheme
08 July 2009

Europe backs bank control plans

German Finance Minister Peer Steinbruck
Germany is opposing the idea enforced capital buffers in the short term

European finance ministers have agreed proposals which would force banks to put aside more money in good times to help them weather tougher periods.

The plans are aimed at helping to stop financial institutions from lending too much money when economic growth is high and to lend more in bad times.

The EU's European Commission is due to create legislation in October.

The pledge is similar to plans already agreed by the US and UK and among those put forward at April's G20 summit.

However, European finance ministers have clashed with Germany, which wants to delay the changes - saying that restrictions will make it harder for banks to get out of the recession in reasonable shape.

'Stronger'

The proposals, the so-called Basel II rules on capital requirements, are aimed at ensuring that the 27-nation EU is better prepared for any repeat of the global financial crisis.

"We need to see stronger buffers in banks in good times. It is important that we mend the banking system so that credit gets running again," said Swedish Finance Minister Anders Borg, whose country holds the EU's presidency.

"We need stronger regulation, more efficient regulation."

European finance ministers also criticised bonuses and remuneration at banks, saying that "inappropriate incentives, short-termism and inadequate capture of risk" had allowed banks take on massive risks.

"There are obviously systemic implications for how the remunerations are set," Mr Borg said.

Germany said that it would continue with its plans for the Basel II rules to be relaxed - arguing that that the supply of credit would dry up and put firms at risk of collapse in the midst of recession.

"What we're saying is that, in this particular situation, which will hopefully be over soon, we need to do what's necessary to get out of this pro-cyclical effect," said German finance minister Peer Steinbruck.

However Mr Borg said there was a "very broad majority of countries that did not have exactly the same view" as Germany.

Source: BBC.

I am not a financial expert but like to think through these matters with th eyes of an anthropologist who believes in the social dimension of human nature, and therefore human institutions as banks are:  in my opinion, the best way to get out of  the pro-cyclical effect is to get out of  the auto-benefit schemes and expand to social missions in a win-win relationship. 

What do you think... any financial-philosopher there?



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Legal tip 114. Rental contracts: still better to arbitration
07 July 2009

Express Evictions

The Justice Committee of Congress approved on the 25th of June the Bill on incentives and for the streamlining of rentals and efficient energy of buildings, which establishes a deadline of 15 days "in the event that tenants do not comply with the agreed period for the voluntary eviction after the relevant court ruling”
 
The text establishes that all actions, both of eviction as of rental claims, are all processed through the oral proceedings, a faster and easier judicial process which will allow Courts to issue a Decision within 5 days in cases of eviction.

Some steps ahead… even though…
I will still recommend my clients to opt to submit the rental contract to arbitration rather than courts: cheaper and safer.
 
I will be posting twice a week- Tuesdays and Thursdays- during the summer break (July and August).
 
How are those vacations going? Remember: no much is needed to share some good times with family and friends.
 
Best from Algeciras,
 
Maria L. de Castro
 
 

Tarifa ( Cadiz) beach by Lorenzo stupid kid  AKA rockito at Flickr.com



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Web 2.0 can help your business do more with less
06 July 2009

I am sure you Justin and the EOS team already know of this book... but as you are looking to new perspectives to increase the budget....

Please let me know how it goes.

Amy Shuen: How Web 2.0 Can Help Your Business Do More with Less

Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide: Business thinking and strategies behind successful Web 2.0 implementations.



Like 0        Posted at 10:05   Comments (2)


Legal tip 113. 7 questions about sales
03 July 2009

 

7 Questions about Sales

1.      Do the products that I purchase during a sale have the same guarantees as those purchased during normal periods?

Yes.  There is no discount in the quality or security of products, only for the price of the products.  There is a guarantee of at least two years on all new products. 

2. Can claim sheets be ordered in sales? 

Yes.  Since the standards for service and product quality do not change, you can order claim sheets in the same manner as during normal periods. 

3.      Can I ask for a bill? 

Yes, as always, you can ask for an invoice or purchase ticket bearing the product name, purchase date, price and name of the store.

4. Can I pay by credit card?

Yes, it is mandatory for all establishments that use this method of sale for the rest of the year to accept it during a sale, unless it is clearly stated otherwise. Using a credit card does not involve any charge on the price of the product.

5. What rights do I have to return a sale product that is in poor condition? I bought some shoes on sale and they broke the next day.

In such cases the return is mandatory.  In addition, the customer does not have to accept vouchers, checks, or domestic currency. If the purchase paid with a debit or credit card, the refund shall be refunded to the card; if you paid in cash, the refund will be made in cash.

6. I bought a dress on sale and I now I realize that I do not need it as the party has been cancelled.  What rights do I have to return products on sale?

Technically, stores are not required to accept returns of products in good condition.  However, most companies allow such returns and must continue practices during sales that they adhere to during the rest of the year.  If a store will not accept returns of products in good condition, they must post notification of this explicitly, in a visible place.  If a company will accept returns of products in good condition, the store may refund your money or provide sales vouchers. 

7. I bought a bathing suit in April and paid 60€.  Now I want to return it, but the bathing suit costs 45€.  What amount am I entitled to receive?

You are entitled to receive the price you paid for the product, listed on the purchase ticket or receipt, regardless of the current sale price for the product. 

 

 Ready to sleep by Roberto Pecino at Flickr.com

 

 


 



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Legal tip 112. Spain Consumers Act. Part 4.
03 July 2009


Article 17. Information, training and education of consumers and users.

1. The public authorities, within their respective competence, will promote the training and education of consumers and users, will ensure that they have the necessary information for the effective exercise of their rights and will ensure that they are given understandable information about proper use and consumption of goods and services which are available for them on the market.


2. The Estate mass media will produce some programs, without advertising and to the information and education of consumers and users. In such spaces and programs in accordance with its content and purpose consumer and user associations and other representative groups or stakeholders will take place in the manner to be agreed with the media.


Article 18. Labeling and advertising of goods and services.

1. The labeling and presentation of goods and services and ways of presenting them must be done such as to not mislead the consumer and user, specially:


a. About characteristics of the good or service and, in particular, about its nature, identity, composition, quantity, origin or method of manufacture or production.

b. About effects or properties that the good or service do not possess.


c. If suggests the good or service possesses special characteristics when in fact all similar goods or services possess such characteristics.


2. Without prejudice to the specific requirements established by regulation, all goods and services available to consumers and users should incorporate, or ultimately, allow a clear, understandable, truthful and effective enough information on its essential characteristics, and particularly on the following:


a. Name and address of the producer.
b. Nature, composition and purpose.
c. Quality quantity, category or usual name or trademark, if any.
d. Date of production, supply and lot, where it is required by regulation, the term recommended for use or consumption or expiration date.

e. Instructions or indications for a proper use or consume , warnings, and foreseeable risks.


3. Subject to the exceptions provided by law or regulation, the compulsory labeling and presentation of goods or services sold in Spain must me shown at least in Castilian, Spanish official state language.


4. The offer, promotion, and false or misleading advertising of goods and services will be prosecuted and punished as fraud. Consumer associations are entitled to initiate and intervene in the legal procedures available to stop them.

 

 Caños de Meca ( Cadiz) By kida.kida at Flickr.com

 

 

 

 

 

 



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Legal tip 111. Spain consumers Act. Part 3.
02 July 2009

Article 11. General duty of safety.

1. The goods or services on the market must be safe.

2. Are considered safe goods or services those which, under normal or reasonably foreseeable use, including its duration, does not present any risk to health or safety of persons, or only minimal risk compatible with the use of the good or service and found within an acceptable level of health protection and safety of persons.

Article 12. Information to consumers and users about the risks of the goods or services.

 1. Employers shall inform users in advance and by appropriate means on the risks that could come from a foreseeable use of goods and services, given their nature, characteristics, duration and the people they are intended, according as provided in Article 18 and regulations that may apply.
 
2. Chemicals and all items that carry substances that are classified as dangerous must be packaged with appropriate security guarantees and clearly display the appropriate signs that warn of the risk involved in their handling.

Article 13. Other specific obligations for the protection of health and safety of consumers and users.

Any employer involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers and users shall, within the limits of their respective activities, to respect the following rules:

a. The prohibition on holding or storing products not statutorily permitted or prohibited on the premises or facilities of production, processing, storage or transportation of food or drink.

b. Maintaining the necessary control so you can quickly and effectively check the origin, distribution, use and utilization of potentially unsafe goods, which contain substances classified as dangerous or subject to the requirements of traceability.

c. The ban on doorstep selling drinks and food, without prejudice of allocation, distribution or supply of those items purchased or ordered by consumers in those businesses authorized for sale to the public, and without prejudice of the system of direct sales to home which are traditionally practiced in certain areas of the country.
 
d. Compliance with regulations established by the local authorities or, where appropriate, the autonomous communities on the cases, terms and conditions for hawking of beverages and foods.
 
e. The prohibition on supply of goods without the required safety markings or the minimum data that will enable the identification of the owner of the good.
 
f. To withdraw, suspend or recover from consumers and users through effective means, any good or service that does not conform to the conditions and requirements, or that by any other cause will suppose a foreseeable risk to health or safety of people.

g. The ban on importing products which fail to comply with this rule and related regulations.

h. Demands for control of manufactured goods likely to affect the physical safety of individuals, providing in this regard the due attention to the repair and maintenance services.

i. The ban on using ingredients, equipment and other items likely to generate risks to health and safety of persons. In particular, the prohibition to use such materials or elements in the construction of units of residential and/or public use.

Article 14. Regulations for goods and services.

1.     The rules governing the different goods and services determine the following aspects to the extent required to ensure the health and safety of consumers and users:
 
a. The concepts, definitions, nature, characteristics and classifications.
 
b. The conditions and requirements of facilities and qualified personnel in charge.

c. The usual treatments or procedures of manufacture, distribution and marketing, permitted, prohibited or subject to prior authorization.

d. The specific rules on advertising.

e. The essential safety requirements, including those relating to composition and quality.

f. The official methods of analysis, sampling, quality control and inspection.

g. Warranties, liabilities, violations and penalties.

h. The system of authorization, recording and reviewing.

2.  In order to protect the health and safety of consumers and users the government may establish regulatory measures regarding production and marketing of goods and services, particularly in regard to their control, monitoring and inspection.

Article 15. Administrative actions.

1. In situations of risk to health and safety of consumers and users, government authorities may take all the necessary measures for the disappearing of the risk, including direct intervention on things and compulsion on people. In these cases, all costs that are incurred shall be borne by the persons whose conduct caused the risk, regardless of sanctions, if any, that may be imposed. The levy of such charges and penalties may be carried out by the administrative procedure of enforcement.

2. The government, reflecting the nature and severity of risks identified, may inform consumers and users affected by the most appropriate mean with information on risks or irregularities, the good or service concerned and, where appropriate, measures, and the safety precautions being taken, both to protect themselves from risk, as for their cooperation in eliminating its causes.

3. Those responsible for the coordination of state systems for exchanging information integrated into the European warning system, will communicate all the information to the customs authorities when, according to information provided in the communications, the risky products or services come from third countries.
 
Article 16. Extraordinary measures in situations of urgency and necessity.
 
Exceptionally, in those situations of extreme gravity that produce an indiscriminate aggression against health and safety of consumers and users in more than one autonomous community ( region) , the Government may constitute for the time necessary to stop the situation, a body for integration and participation of affected regions, which will assume all the administrative powers in order to ensure the health and safety of people, their economic and social interests, the repairing of caused damages, accountability and the publication of results.
 
Roman ruins and beach in Bolonia (Tarifa) by Salva Mendez at Flickr.com
 
 
 
 
 


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Legal tip 110. Spain Consumers Act. Part 2.
01 July 2009

Following the fun serie on Consumers rights in Spain since 2007:

Article 8. Basic rights of consumers and users.

The following are basic rights of consumers and users:

- The protection against risks that may affect their health or safety.

- The protection of their legitimate economic and social interests, particularly against abusive terms in contracts.

- The compensation for and repair of damages.

- Access to accurate information about goods or services, and education and outreach to learn about a good or service´s use, consumption or enjoyment.

- The ability to consult and participate in drafting general provisions that directly impact them , as well as access to representation of their interests through legal partnerships, associations, federations or confederations of consumers and users.

- Protection of their rights through effective procedures, especially in situations of inferiority, subordination and powerlessness.

Article 9. Goods and services for common use.

The public authorities shall protect the rights of consumers and users when they are directly related to goods or services for common, ordinary and generalized consumption.

Article 10. Inalienability of the rights granted to consumers and users.

The prior resignation to the rights that this law recognizes to users and consumers is null and void, as are those acts which were perpetrated fraudulently, in accordance with the provisions of Article 6 of the Civil Code.



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